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Holidays! A great opportunity to spend more time with your children. And a great opportunity to give a boost to your children’s heritage language development! Just because you spend more time with them, speaking the family language, will help a lot. But to make it more effective, there are two things to remember.
First, keep speaking your family language! I mean, 100% your family language! You guys don’t even notice how easily many of you switch to English when your kids address you in English. But I notice it all the time. That’s because you are bilingual too, and it’s natural, but we are trying to help our kids learn the family language, right? You might switch for a part of a sentence or even for just one word, repeating it after your child. Even in the latter case, you ruin your child’s opportunity to recall the word that she forgot – or maybe even learn the word she didn’t know. Does she know the words for holiday decorations? Or for winter weather?
Second, get your kids to speak the family language! I’ll keep saying this: if they listen, they learn to understand; if you want them to be able to speak, they have to speak. I already told you what happens if they listen but don’t speak. Ask them to tell stories: what was it like at their latest playdate? what gifts they liked best and why? what was their favourite day during the break so far, and why?
Good luck, and happy New Year to everyone!
The short answer is – unfortunately – yes, if the child starts using it less, be it a first, a second, or a third language. “But he speaks it so well, how can he forget it?” Yes, such cases have been described in the literature. And there is an abundance of anecdotal evidence. The degree of forgetting varies a lot.
“I spoke Russian better when I was younger”
“I spoke only Inuktitut until I started school. Now [as an adult] I understand it, but when I try to say something, the words just don’t come out right. So I switch to English”
“My parents say I spoke only French till I was three. I don’t remember that. Then we moved to the U.S., I learned English, and could not speak French until I started taking French classes later.”
“We always spoke Russian to my daughter. When we lived in Israel, she learned Hebrew at the daycare. She was fluent. When we moved to Canada, she went to Senior Kindergarten. We concentrated on her English, continued to speak Russian at home, and there was no place where she could speak Hebrew. And she lost her Hebrew in a few months! I wish I knew it could happen so fast!”
And the most dramatic language loss was found in Korean adoptees in France (studies by C. Pallier, V. Ventureyra and their colleagues). These children lived in Korea until their adoption at age 1-8 – some of them even went to school in Korea, – haven’t heard any Korean since adoption, and completely forgotten it.
Some children go through several periods of forgetting and re-learning when their language situation changes. An Inuit girl who has to spend long periods in hospital outside of her community forgets Inuktitut by the end of each hospital stay, and then re-learns it when coming back home. Children in a mixed German-Russian marriage in Germany forget Russian by the end of the school year, re-learn it during summer in Russia with grandparents, but forget German by the end of the summer, go back to Germany, re-learn German, but forget Russian, and so on.
Modern studies suggest that the age until which a complete language loss or dramatic forgetting can happen is somewhere at 8-10 years old. Although the basic first language knowledge is already in place by about age four, 8-10 is the age when the first language knowledge stabilizes, and also the age when a new language is learned in the same way as by adults. This does not mean that forgetting cannot happen after this age, only that there will be much less forgetting.
Question from a parent: What to do if my child keeps responding in English when though I speak to him in our family language? He understands, but keeps answering in English.
First, why is the child answering in English?
It may depend where you are. If, for example, school is a place to speak English for your child, that’s what the child is supposed to do.
It may depend on what the child did before. The child may keep speaking English right after school. As long as this is temporary (the first few minutes), there’s nothing to worry about.
What if the child always (or most of the time) answers in English? Intuitively, parents say, “Because it’s easier for him”. And they are right. A fluent bilingual switches to the language in which people talk to him. If he uses another language, this is a red flag – it means difficulties with expressing himself in the language in which he was addressed. The difficulties include both word knowledge and grammar, and grammar is more of a problem. The child might not know some words, but in this case, he might switch to English just for those words and say the rest in the family language. But if the child finds it difficult to build a sentence, supplying all the necessary pieces (like the correct case and gender endings in Russian), he might abandon attempts to express his ideas in the family language. This is especially true for children who are afraid to be embarrassed by their mistakes.
So, before we get to the direct solutions to this problem, create an environment to help your child learn more of the family language. Make sure that your child hears enough of the family language every day: in conversations with various adults and children on various topics, in books that you read aloud or he reads with you, in cartoons, in language lessons. If you are the only (or the main) source of the family language for him, spend with him as much time as you can and talk only in the family language as much as you can.
Now, how to get the child to speak in the family language?
When he speaks, you might be disappointed (that’s exactly why he didn’t want to speak). He will likely speak slowly, make grammatical errors, choose wrong words, get stuck in the middle of the sentence – any or all of the above.
So, first, create a safe environment, preferably when there are no people who can make the child feel uncomfortable. Be patient and encouraging. Do not correct the child at first, as long as you understand his message. Never let anybody laugh at the child’s errors or otherwise make the child feel ashamed. As one of receptive bilinguals in my Labrador Inuktitut study said, “The worst you can do when a person makes a mistake is to laugh at them”. Never force the child to speak in the family language. You want to motivate him, not the opposite.
Create situations in which the child has to respond in the family language. It’s great if there are people who speak only the family language to him. What works for me (though we only had this issue temporarily) is simply pretending to be too tired to understand English and keeping asking “What?” in Russian until I get an answer in Russian. If that alone does not work, I answer in French, which my children don’t yet understand enough. You can try role play with a toy who speaks and understands only the family language, or the toy who wants to learn the family language. And, yes, my children did get a child-friendly version of a lecture on language forgetting, with some scary but real stories (but that will be a separate post).
Most importantly, keep speaking your language to the child anyway. Learning is still going in even when he is only listening. But keep trying: to learn to speak, the child needs to speak.
I am reading a bedtime story in Russian to the kids. They are interested, they are following, they seem to understand. And, all of a sudden, my eight-year-old fluent Russian-English bilingual asks, in Russian, “Что значит ‘материя’?” (“What does ‘fabric’ mean?”). This happens a couple more times while I am reading. Some of the words she does not know may also be new to children of her age in Russia. As for other of those words, kids in Russia would be surprised to learn that someone their age does not know such words. This is normal. And this is why I keep reading in Russian to my kids, and insist that they should read in Russian on their own.
This also happens during reading in English. This is normal. And this is why reading is English is necessary too.
We master the sounds and the grammar of our language in the first few years of life, but we keep learning new words throughout our childhood and even throughout our whole life. I recently added a few dozens of new words to my mental lexicon when I started learning to sail. New words are learned with new experiences, with new concepts. Bilingual children tend to have smaller vocabularies in each language than monolingual children. This is because they divide their time between languages. They have different experiences in each language. They might know, for example, science terminology only in English, but names of the plants in their backyard, only in Russian.
But whatever experience they have, books have an enormous potential to expand it. Books contain a lot of words that we rarely use in everyday life – and yet a lot of them are words that every educated speaker knows. The more limited the child’s experience with a language, the more important it is to read books in that language.
You might have seen such a picture: a mother speaks to her child in Russian (or whatever heritage language), and the child answers in English. The simple definition of receptive bilinguals is “people who understand but do not speak”. This is reality for quite a large number of heritage speakers. After testing Labrador Inuktitut receptive bilinguals, I can say that there are two myths about them. One, that they understand everything. The other, that they cannot speak the heritage language at all.
There is definitely a huge difference between their speaking and listening abilities. But even in listening, they miss some parts. Of course, they encounter unfamiliar words, but they also have problems with grammar. They might not be able to get the difference between sentences like The boy is pushing a girl and The boy is being pushed by a girl, even if they know all the words. Fluent speakers might not be able to explain the difference, but they imagine the right pictures when hearing these sentences. Without our implicit grammatical knowledge, we wouldn’t know how words in a sentence relate to each other, and be left to guess, unless our knowledge of the world helps us. Receptive bilinguals still have at least the most basic grammatical knowledge, but some pieces are completely missing, and for others, they have trouble connecting, for example, a suffix and what it is used for. Because of that, it is difficult for them to build a sentence when they are speaking – they, for example, know that the verb needs an ending but cannot remember which ending; in languages that have cases, they may not know what case suffix a noun needs, and so on. If they try to speak, their speech may be very slow, they may make errors, and may give up and switch to English. That’s why they avoid speaking in the heritage language, but it’s not true that they cannot speak at all.
For starters, I will explain this common term – HERITAGE LANGUAGE. In Canada, it is usually used to refer to immigrant languages, highlighting that these are languages spoken mainly among family members – in contrast to official languages that are used everywhere. A HERITAGE SPEAKER in Canada is someone who grows up hearing a heritage language from parents and English from other people. Naturally, they spend more time speaking English than the heritage language, at least since they start school. And it often happens that they speak heritage language not so well. In scientific literature, the term HERITAGE SPEAKER usually implies incomplete knowledge of a heritage language. People who are fluent in a heritage language are simply called fluent bilinguals. I’m not quite happy about this term (though I use it) because it is not fair to these fluent speakers of a heritage language.
I’ve seen a lot of variation in children’s and adults’ skills in their heritage language, from full or near-full fluency to complete forgetting and everything in between. And the majority is in between. Learning one language in childhood is effortless. What about learning two? Some parents take it for granted that their children’s Russian doesn’t sound quite like Russian. On the other hand, I met so many Russian-Canadian parents who are more optimistic, who want their children to speak Russian well, and who make efforts to achieve this. So who is right?
It’s obvious that achieving full fluency in a heritage language is not easy. The problem is not bilingualism by itself. Children can learn two languages. The problem is that heritage speakers are at risk of not getting enough exposure to the heritage language. This usually includes lack of schooling in the heritage language. For some parts of language knowledge, it’s not a big problem; for others, it is.
People whose kids don’t have enough, for example, sun exposure give them Vitamin D. So parents who want their child to speak the heritage language well also need to give something extra to their children. I remain optimistic, especially when hearing my kids’ and some of their friends’ fluent Russian. They make occasional errors, but they know how to say it right; these are more like slips of the tongue. They don’t know some rare words that they encounter in Russian books – but, hey, we keep learning new words throughout all our lives. I believe the answer is YES. But that Vitamin D for heritage language is a very complex concoction, and figuring out its recipe is quite a journey.
I am looking for 6-7 year old Russian-English bilingual children residing in Toronto or Ottawa for participation in a study. Each child is tested individually in both languages through games and story books, during one 30-40 minute visit, and receives a gift. Contact me at email@example.com.